JASMINE (Jasminum species) fam: Oleaceae Dr.S.ESWARA REDDY Jasmine is one of the most popular flowers. About 200 species of Jasminum, both climbing and trailing or shrub, with erect habit are found in temperate, tropical, and subtropical regions of the world. Several species of Jasminum including many important cultivated ones are native of India. The commonly grown species are: Jasminum auriculatum
: Mullai/Pari Mullai
: Jathi Malli or pitchi also called Jaji.
: Arabian Jasine or Mallipoo (Gundu Malli)
J. brevilobium J. arborescens J. paniculatum J. primulinum J. humile
: Yellow flower sp.
J. flexile J. pubescens J. calophyllum
Very heavy and high yielding species not : affected by pests and diseases.
Almost all species flower during summer and the rainy season. The species J.pubescens flowers during winter in Northern India. J.auriculatum, J.grandiflorum and J.sambac are commonly important in India. Importance: Jasmine flowers are used for making garlands and are for adorning the hair of women. Some species of jasmine (J.grandiforum, J.auriculatum and J.samboc) yield a very valuable oil which is used in perfumery industry. In the gardens the Jasmine (J. sambac) is raised as a
dwarf growing shrub and a few species (J. grandiflorum, J. auriculatum etc.) are grown as climbers over pergolas and arches.
Distribution: In Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka the Jasmine particularly, J. sambac are commercially cultivated for flowers. Cultivation practices: Climate: Jasmine are fairly hardy and drought resistant plants. In India it is grown nearly throughout the country both in the plains and in the hills upto 10,000 ft (3333.3m) Soil: Jasmine comes up well in both heavy as well a light types of soil, well drained loamy soils, are, however, the best. Varieties: Mullai (Jasminum auriculatum) Parimullai is the best. It is high yielding and resistant to the gall mite caused by Acerya Jasmine a serious pest of mullai. It has also a long flowering season of 9 to 10 months (from February to December). It is a clonal selection made from the local type clone 1 – long pointed bud at Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Jathi Malli (Jassminum grandiflorum) It is grown for its highly fragment flowers. The plants is ornamental in appearance having long pendulous branches with dissected leave. It is
a heavy yielder and produces blooms practically throughout the year. There are two distinct types in Jathi Malli. One produces milky white flowers and the other with pink colouration on the outside. Pink tinged flowers are highly fragment. The triploid pink flowered variety is the best. It is high yielding and flowers for 10 months from March to December. It is a selection made from locally grown ‘diploid’ pink variety at Tamilnadu Agril. University. Coimbatore. Mallipoo or Arabian Jasmine (Jasminum sambac). It is a dwarf spreading bushy shrub with attractive grabrous leaves, produces white scented flowers in great perfusion in hot season. There are four types in J. Sambac. 1. Single flowered Arabian Jasmine (Single mohra) 2. The semidouble types – Denthera malli 3. The fully double small flower Arabian Jasmine – Gunde Malli, Iruvatchi. 4. The large double or Tuscan type Jasmine also called the Grand Duke of Tuscany – Boddu Malli. Gundu Malli and iruvatchi are preferred for commercial cultivation, whereas single mohra for home gardens. Planting Material: Jasmines are propagated through cuttings or by layering.
The cultivated species of J. auriculatus (Mullai) and JKathi Malli (J. grandiflorum) are multiplied by layers. The layers may be raised in the rainy season. They generally becomes ready for planting in 3 to 4 months. Varieties belonging to J. Sambac can be perpetuated by means of cuttings. At the time of planting the rooted layers or cuttings are lifted with a ball of earth around the roots and covered with a wet gunny. They are kept under shade until required for planting. Planting operations: Pits of ¾ to 1 m cube are dug and exposed for a week. Afterwards the pits are sterilized by burning dried leaves and twinges. A day later soil well mixed with 20 kg of FYM per pit is used for filling. A seeking irrigation is given to the pits for the soil to settle down. If white and is prevalent 3 gm of a mixture of 5% BHC and 5% DDT (1:1) is applied per pit and the soil mixed up. A day later, the layer or cuttings are planted in the centre of the pit and irrigated immediately. Planting
preferable to plant in the evenings. Planting distances: Pari Malli (J. auriculatum)
: 1.5 meters either way in a square.
Jathi Malli (J. grandiflourm)
: 1.75 meters either way in a square.
Gundu Malli (J. sambac)
: 1.25 either way in a square.
Irrigation: The bushes are irrigated three days after planting, and once in 4 days during the flowering season in case of Mallai and Jathi Malli and once a week in the case of Gundu Malli. Irrigation can be stopped completely at the cessation of the flowering season until after pruning and manuring. In Jasmines the flowering is usually in flushes accruing at intervals of one week. It is therefore necessary to withhold irrigation after each flush or flowering until fresh buds make their appearance. Pruning: Pruning is essential to get optimum yields and to keep the bushed within manageable size. The first pruning is done in the year following planting and thereafter once a year. The bushes are pruned during December-January every year. Irrigation is stopped 15 days before pruning to a height of 75-90 on from ground level. After pruning the leaves from the shoots are stripped and dead shoots removed. The soil around the bushes is dug up to a depth of 15 cm and a diameter of 60-75 cm all round leaving 30 cm of area close to the bush undisturbed. The dug basins are exposed for a week. After this manures and fertilizers are applied and irrigated sparingly (once in a week) at first and increased after the appearance of flower fx buds (once in four days) so that the treatment does not result in vegetative exuberance. Manuring: Dosage recommended per application per unit. Pari Malli (J. auriculatum Gundu Malli & Iruvatch (J. sambac)
Jathi Malli (J. grandiflorum) Cattle manure or compost.
Muriate or potash
For plants less than 6 months in age one fourth of the above dose may be applied and half the dose for one year old plants. The full dose as above is applied form the second year onwards, twice a year, once immediately after pruning in December-January and again in June-July for twinges (Mullai and Jathi Malli). The dwarf bushed Gundu Malli and Iruvatchi have to be manured once in two months. The first application should be done after pruning in December-January and thereafter once in 2 months. Inter-cultivation: A shallow weeding is given once after every 3 irrigation. A shallow digging (10 to 15 cm) may be given once in three months. The plants do not require any support or Pandal. They can be grown as erect bushes by regular pruning. Inter-Cropping: Intercropping of vegetables or other slower crops like chrysanthemum and crossandara can be done during the first year. Plant Protection: Pari Mallai – is resistant to the gall mite pest but stray incidence (less than 3 per cent) may occur sometimes. Affected shoots are removed and burnt. One or two sprays of thicvit or Wettable sulphur (200 gm in 100 lit of water) will check the pest from spreading. In severe cases the spraying is repeated.
Against red mite Trithion (150 ml in 100 liters of water) once every week. 3 to 4 spraying will control the pest. To control bud worms which eat sway the tender buds, parathion 0.15 per cent (200 ml of parathion 50 per cent in 200 litres of water) is sprayed. Jathi Malli: Cercospora leaf spot disease will seriously damage the plants particularly in the rainy winter seasons. affected leaves and shoots will dry up. To control Dithane z-78 (25 gm in 10 litres of water)weekly 3 or 4 times is sprayed. Gundu Malli and Iruvatch: Varieties will be damaged by red mite pest and bud worms. The same control measures as indicated for Mullai can be adopted. Picking: Unopened but fully developed flower buds should be picked in the mornings (Preferably before 11.00 cm) and marketed immediately. Unlike Malli, Gundu Malli and Iruvatchi, Jathi Malli flower buds will open out quickly (within 2 hours of picking). Hence, it is essential to pick the flower buds and transported to the market very early (before 9.00 a.m.) Best prices are obtained for fresh flower bids. Nearness to market, availability of adequate labor for picking and means of quick transportation are essential. An hectare of Jasmine may require 75-120 women for picking the flowers per day of 5 hours. (6.00 am to 11.00 am) in the peak flowering season.
In Pari Mullai and Jathi Malli, flowering will start in March and the yield will be at the peak from June to October. The yield will gradually decline from October to December. Gundu Malli and Irvuvatchi varieties will be in flower from March to October, but the maximum output of flowers will be obtained between April to August. Yield: The plants will give stray flowers 6 months after planting. The yield will gradually increase and optimum yields will be obtained in the third year. Pari Mullai: Average yield will be around 10,000 kg per ha. per year. Yield upto 19,000 kg per ha can be obtained proper agronomic practices and good management. Jathi Malli: 11,000 kg per ha per year. Gundu Malli: An average yield of 6,200 kg per ha per year can be obtained from three to four year old bushes. Iruvatchi can yield about 5000 kg per ha per year. Jasmine Products: Jasmine oil: The Jasmine flower oil is said to blend well with every floral scent and is highly valued for producing high grade perfumes in modern perfumery. The essential oil of Jasmine is known in commerce as ‘Jasmine concrete’.
The world production of Jasmine concrete is estimated at 5000 kg per year and nearly half the production comes from France. According to some reports one kg of Jasmine concrete of the highest grade was prices at about Rs. 11,700 – 12,000/-. Method of extraction: The oil is extracted from Jasmine flowers by the solvent extraction process. Petroleum either of good quality and free from impurities is used as the solvent. The resultant waxy extract is the Jasmine concrete and it is further purified by alcohol and by means of vacuum distillation to produce ‘Jasmine absolute’, which is used for making perfumes. The recovery of Jasmine concrete varies with the species. J. grandiflorum gave 0.4 per cent recovery at National Chemical Laboratory, Poona and J. auriculatum gave 0.55 to 0.40 per cent at Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. According to same reports, the recovery of Jasmine concrete is about 2.5 kg for every 1000 kg of flowers. The
J.grandiflorum (Pink variety). The concrete and absolute prepared from Indian J.gardiflorum (Jathi Malli) were found superior to the products from Egypt and Isreal. J.auriculatum had a scent factor superior to other Jasmines. Cost of cultivation and Profit: The cost of cultivation of Pari Mullai will be approximately Rs. 5,000/- to Rs. 7,500/- per hectare per year in the first and second year and Rs. 10,000/- to Rs. 12,500/- per ha. From
the third year onwards. From the third year the gross income will be Rs. 30,000/- per ha. An annual net income of not less than Rs. 17,500/- to Rs. 20,000/- per ha can be obtained after the third year depending upon the care of garden and market prices. The cost of Cultivation of Jathi Malli be approximately the same as for Mullai. But because of the higher market values for its flowers, the gross income per ha will be around Rs. 37,000/- from the third year. The net profit can be about Rs. 20,000/- per year per ha. The net income per hectare will be about Rs. 12,500/- to Rs. 15,000/- from the fourth year onwards in Gundu Malli and Iruvatchi. Jasmine plants are perennial and can live as long as first years and more. Good yields can be obtained upto 15-18 years.